﻿ Appendix

# Appendix

### Appendix 1.  Reserved words in Full BASIC

The following keywords are reserved words, which cannot be used for identifires (variable names, function names, or routine names).
` NOT，ELSE，PRINT，REM，PI，RND，MAXNUM，TIME，DATE，EXTYPE，EXLINE，ZER，CON，IDN，TRANSFORM`

### Appendix 2.  Other important instructions

#### 1. Control

 EXIT FOR escapes from the FOR ~ NEXT. (Similar to EXIT DO) GOTO line_number The control is moved to the line with a specified line number.
EXIT DO and EXIT FOR escapes from the innermost DO~LOOP , FOR~NEXT, respectively.
To escape from the outside loop, jumping over the inside loop, use a GOTO statment.

#### 2. Graphics

 GET POINT: x, y wait for clicking with the mouse, and substitutes the coordinates of that point for the variable x, y. PLOT AREA: x2, y2 ; x2, y2; ... ; xn, yn fills the inside of the area surrounded by a polygonal line connecting (x1, y1), (x2, y2), …, (xn, yn), (x1, y1). SET AREA COLOR n Area color is made n. (Similar to SET LINE COLOR)

### Appendix 3.  Major Built-in Functions (only numeric)

 General ABS(x) Absolute value of x SQR(x) Nonnegative square root of x INT(x) The largest integer not exceeding x MOD(x, y) Remainder when x is divided by y CEIL(x) The smallest integer not less than x IP(x) Integral part of x FP(x) Fraction part of x ROUND(x, n) Value of x rounded to n places of decimals SGN(x) Sign of x. SGN(x)=1 when x>0, SGN(0)=0, SGN(x)=-1 when x<0 Exponent/Logarithm EXP(x) Exponential function LOG(x) Natural logarithm LOG2(x) Logarithm with 2 as base LOG10(x) Common logarithm Trigonometric SIN(x) sine COS(x) cosine TAN(x) tangent CSC(x) cosecant SEC(x) secant COT(x) cotangent ASIN(x) arcsine, -π/2≦ASIN(x)≦π/2 ACOS(x) arccosine, 0≦ACOS(x)≦π ATN(x) arctangent, -π/2 < ATN(x) < π/2 ANGLE(x,y) Angle formed by a half-line connecting the origin and point (x,y) and positive direction of x-axis, －π < ANGLE(x,y)≦π Hyperbolic TANH(x) Hyperbolic tangent SINH(x) Hyperbolic sine COSH(x) Hyperbolic cosine Random number RND Pseudo-random, 0≦RND < 1 Time TIME Time in seconds elapsed from midnight of the day Others PI Approximate value of π MAXNUM Largest expressible positive number EPS(x) Difference with the number just before x or just after x MAX(a,b) Larger one of a and b MIN(a,b) Smaller one of a and b

### Appendix 4.   Difference between minimal BASIC and Full BASIC

#### (1) Lower bounds of array indices

The default lower bound of array indices is 0 in minimal BASIC, though it is 1 in Full BASIC.
If index 0 is required, write
`OPTION BASE 0`
in the beginning of the program.

#### (2) Implicit array declaration

Although minimal BASIC allows arrays to be declared implicitely,
all arrays must be declared explicitly using DIM (or DECLARE) statements in Full BASIC.