Decimal BASIC is a language processing system made aiming at achieving ISO Full BASIC.
Version 7.4.4 has almost achieved the implementation of the graphics module of ISO Full BASIC.
It accepts the whole syntax provided by the graphics module of ISO Full BASIC, while there are slight differences in behavior.
Moreover, the modules and individual character input modules have been roughly achieved, too.
In addition, the complex number mode and the rational number mode are prepared as original enhancements.
Line numbers can be omitted.
Numerical values are the floating point decimal numbers of 15 digits.
All numeric built-in functions that ANSI Full BASIC provides are prepared.
ABS(x) | the absolute value of x |
ACOS(x) | the arccosine of x |
ANGLE(x,y) | The angle between the vectors (x,y) and (1,0) |
ASIN(x) | The arcsine of x |
ATN(x) | The arctangent of x |
CEIL(x) | The smallest integer not less than x |
COS(x) | The cosine of x |
COSH(x) | The hyperbolic cosine of x |
COT(x) | The cotangent of x |
CSC(x) | The cosecant of x |
DATE | The current date |
DEG(x) | The number of degrees in x radians |
EPS(x) | The difference between x and the predecessor or successor |
EXP(x) | The exponential of x |
FP(x) | The fractional part of x |
INT(x) | The largest integer not greater than x |
IP(x) | The integer part of x |
LOG(x) | The natural logarithm of x |
LOG10(x) | The common logarithm of x |
LOG2(x) | The base 2 logarithm of x |
MAX(x,y) | The larger of x and y |
MAXNUM | The largest manipulable number |
MIN(x,y) | The smaller of x and y |
MOD(x,y) | x modulo y. x-INT(x/y)*y |
PI | the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter |
RAD(x) | The number of radians in x degrees |
REMAINDER(x,y) | The remainder |
RND | The pseudorandom number |
ROUND(x,n) | The value of x rounded to n digits |
SEC(x) | The secant of x |
SGN(x) | The sign of x |
SIN(x) | The sine of x |
SINH(x) | The hyperbolic sine of x |
SQR(x) | The square root of x |
TAN(x) | The tangent of x |
TANH(x) | The Hyperbolic tangent of x |
TIME | The current time |
TRUNCATE(x,n) | The value of x truncated to n digits |
OPTION ANGLE DEGREES
OPTION ANGLE RADIANS
Specify the unit of angle measurement for trigonometric functions.
If ANGLE DEGREES is selected, COS(90), SIN(180) and so on become accurately zero.
Fulfilling the regulations of the accuracy of the calculation result of the built-in functions is aimed. At present, no counterexample is found except for the case where it operates on Virtual PC. The accuracy of some built-in functions depends on FPU. Note it when you use a non-Intel CPU.
All string built-in functions that the standard supply are prepared.
CHR$(m) | The character of code m |
DATE$ | date |
LCASE$(a$) | The lower case |
LEN(a$) | Length of the string |
LTRIM$(a$) | The left trimmed string |
ORD(a$) | The character code of a$ |
POS(a$,b$) | The position of b$ in a$ |
REPEAT$(A$,m) | The repeated string |
RTRIM$(a$) | The right trimmed string |
STR$(x) | The string of numeric x |
TIME$ | The current time |
UCASE$(a$) | The upper case |
USING$(a$,x) | The formatted string |
VAL(a$) | The numeric value |
It deals with substring qualifiers.
If s$ is a string variable and a, and b are numeric expressions, s$(a:b) stands for the substring of s$ from the a-th character to the b-th character.
Substitution of substring can be executed as follows
LET s$(a:b)=string-expression
MAT A=B | Substitution |
MAT A=B+C | Matrix operation (addition) |
MAT A=B-C | Matrix operation (subtraction) |
MAT A=B*C | Matrix operation (product) |
MAT A=x*B | Scalar multiplication |
MAT A=ZER | The zero matrix |
MAT A=IDN | The Identity matrix |
MAT A=CON | The matrix all of whose elements are one |
MAT A=INV(B) | The inverse matrix |
MAT A=TRN(B) | The transposed matrix |
DET(A) | The determinant |
DOT(A,B) | The dot product |
Built-in functions
LBOUND(M,i) | The lower bound of the i-th subscripts of M |
UBOUND(M,i) | The upper bound of the i-th subscripts of M |
SIZE(M,i) | The number of elements in the i-the dimension of M |
SIZE(M) | The number of the total elements of M |
MAXSIZE(M) | The upper bounds of permitted size of M |
String MAT-statements are available, too.
FOR - NEXT
DO - LOOP
IF - ELSE - ELSEIF - END IF
SELECT - CASE - END SELECT
Control statements
EXIT FOR
EXIT DO
GOTO
GOSUB
RETURN
ON GOTO
ON GOSUB
Example.
DEF f(x)=x^2+3*x+1 PRINT f(4) END
Example.
FUNCTION GCD(a,b) IF b=0 THEN LET GCD=a ELSE LET GCD=GCD(b,MOD(a,b)) END FUNCTION INPUT a,b PRINT GCD(a,b) END
Example.
DECLARE EXTERNAL FUNCTION P INPUT n,r PRINT P(n,r) END EXTERNAL FUNCTION P(n,r) LET t=n FOR k=1 TO r-1 LET t=t*(n-k) NEXT k LET P=t END FUNCTION
Example.
SUB double(x) LET x=2*x END SUB LET a=10 CALL double(a) PRINT a END
Example.
DECLARE EXTERNAL SUB exchange LET a=4 LET b=7 CALL exchange(a,b) PRINT a,b END EXTERNAL SUB exchange(a,b) LET t=a LET a=b LET b=t END SUB
Example.
PICTURE arrow PLOT AREA : 0,1; 0,-1; 10,-1; 10,-2; 14,0; 10,2; 10,1 END PICTURE SET WINDOW -20,20,-20,20 DRAW arrow WITH ROTATE(PI/6) END
DECLARE EXTERNAL PICTURE circle SET WINDOW -4,4,-4,4 DRAW circle WITH SCALE(2)*SHIFT(0,2) END EXTERNAL PICTURE circle OPTION ANGLE DEGREES FOR t=0 TO 360 PLOT LINES: COS(t),SIN(t); NEXT t END PICTURE
CALL-statements
DRAW-statements
DECLARE EXTERNAL-statements
SHIFT(a,b)
ROTATE(θ)
SCALE(a,b)
SCALE(a)
SHEAR(θ)
MODULE - END MODULE
DECLARE EXTERNAL
PUBLIC
SHARE
MODULE OPTION
Note. These features are found in ANSI X3.113a-1989, modules and individual character input for Full BASIC.
Example.
DECLARE EXTERNAL SUB turtle.fd, turtle.rt SET WINDOW -2,2,-2,2 FOR i=1 TO 30 CALL fd(1) CALL rt(135) NEXT i END ! LOGO-like turtle graphics MODULE turtle MODULE OPTION ANGLE DEGREES PUBLIC SUB fd, rt SHARE NUMERIC curX, curY, direction LET curX=0 LET curY=0 LET direction=90 EXTERNAL SUB fd(r) ! Forward LET curX=curX+r*COS(direction) LET curY=curY+r*SIN(direction) PLOT LINES: curX, curY; END SUB EXTERNAL SUB rt(t) ! Right Turn LET direction=direction - t END SUB END MODULE
The array I/O is prepared. It deals with undefined length vectors.
MAT READ
MAT INPUT
MAT PRINT
The execution results of PRINT-statements are output to another window.
The number of lines are not limited. The whole can be seen by scrolling vertically or horizontally.
The output result can be printed, and be put on the clipboard by the menu selection.
CHARACTER INPUT
ASK CHARACTER PENDING
Note. These features are found in ANSI X3.113a-1989, modules and individual character input for Full BASIC.
Concerning the files, Decimal BASIC implements only the core module.
Sequential display files, sequential internal files, and stream internal files are available.
Channels can become parameters of subprograms.
However, enhanced files such as RELATIVE or KEYED are not available.
OPEN
CLOSE
ERASE
WRITE
READ
SET MARGIN
SET ZONEWIDTH
SET POINTER
ASK-statements (MARGIN, ZONEWIDTH, POINTER, NAME, ACCESS, RECTYPE, ORGANIZATION, etc.)
Note. COM ports can be dealt as files on Windows version of Decimal BASIC .
The structured exception handling provided by ISO Full BASIC is available.
WHEN EXCEPTION IN - USE - END WHEN
WHEN USE - END WHEN
HANDLER - END HANDLER
CAUSE EXCEPTION
EXIT HANDLER
CONTINUE
RETRY
EXTYPE-function
EXLINE-function
The mechanism that propagates the exception not processed in a procedure to the invoking statement is implemented.
DEBUG ON/OFF
TRACE ON/OFF
BREAK
Graphics with problem coordinates is available.
SET WINDOW
SET VIEWPORT
SET DEVICE WINDOW
SET DEVICE VIEWPORT
SET LINE COLOR
SET POINT COLOR
SET AREA COLOR
SET TEXT COLOR
SET COLOR MIX
SET LINE STYLE
SET POINT STYLE
SET TEXT JUSUTIFY
SET TEXT HEIGHT
SET TEXT ANGLE
ASK-statements (ASK WINDOW, ASK COLOR MIX , etc.)
PLOT LINES
PLOT POINTS
PLOT AREA
PLOT TEXT
GET POINT
MAT PLOT LINES
MAT PLOT POINTS
MAT PLOT AREA
MAT PLOT CELLS
GRAPH-statements (GRAPH POINTS, GRAPH LINES, GRAPH AREA, GRAPH TEXT, etc.)
ASK PIXEL VALUE
ASK PIXEL ARRAY
ASK PIXEL SIZE
CLEAR
LOCATE CHOICE
LOCATE VALUE
MAT GET POINT
Picture definitions and DRAW-statements
Transform functions
SHIFT(a,b) | Translation |
SCALE(a,b) | Scaling |
SCALE(a) | Scaling |
ROTATE(a) | Rotation |
SHEAR(a) | Shear |
Following four statements are found in Appendix F of ANSI Full BASIC.
SET AREA STYLE
SET AREA STYLE INDEX
ASK AREA STYLE
ASK AREA STYLE INDEX
The coordinates at the mouse cursor position are displayed under the graphics output window based on the SET WINDOW executed at the end.
A graphic output can be printed, and be put on the clipboard by menu selection.
The output destination of the graphics can be chosen from four ( bitmap (screen display), metafile (size specification), metafile (refer to the printer), and the printer).
LOCATE POINT, GET POINT, MAT LOCATE POINT, MAT GET POINT are available only for bitmap.
1) Decimal 15-digit mode (ISO). Decimal numbers are accurate. All supplied functions are available.
2) Decimal 1000-digit mode. Decimal numbers up to 1000-digits are accurate. Four operations , integer-powers and the operation of square root are available.
3) Binary about 16-digit mode. It calculates at high speed by using a binary operation of FPU. All built-in functions can be used.
4) Complex number mode. It acts just like 16-digit binary mode except that the domains of some built-in functions are enhanced.
5) Rational number mode. Four arithmetic operations, INTSQR, and GCD etc. are available in this mode. No upper bound of the number of digits. (It is possible to calculate as long as there are rest memories).
The domains of ABS(z), SQR(z), EXP(z), and LOG(z) are enhanced to the complex numbers.
The following built-in functions are added.
COMPLEX(x,y) RE(z) IM(z) ARG(z) CONJ(z)
Transform functions SCALE and SHIFT are extended to complex numbers to deal with complex transformation
In the rational number mode, multi byte precision rational operation is executed.
The following built-in functions are only for the rational number mode.
INTSQR(x) NUMER(x) DENOM(x) GCD(x,y)
There are 3 modes of Syntax: Standard (ISO Full BASIC), Obsolete minimal BASIC, and Microsoft compatible.
The mechanism of rewriting programs written in Microsoft syntax is prepared.
Programs executable in Microsoft compatible mode excluding shown below can be automatically corrected.
FACT(x) the factorial of x
PERM(n,r) the number of permutations
COMB(n,r) the number of combinations (the binary coefficient)
ROUND(x) = ROUND(x,0)
SUBSTR$(a$,m,n) MID$(a$,m,n) LEFT$(a$,n) RIGHT$(a$,n)
These functions are defined as
DEF SUBSTR$(a$,m,n)=a$(m:n)
DEF MID$(a$,m,n)=a$(m:m+n-1)
and so on.
Full BASIC requires constant bounds on a DIM statement.
This is an enhancement, but is not recommended due to making incompatibles.
MAT REDIM
compatible with True BASIC
LOCAL
Declares local variables of inner procedures. Compatible with True BASIC.
MAT C=CROSS(A,B)
The outer product of A and B, where A, B, C are 1-dimensional array of size 3.
Predefined pictures
DRAW GRID DRAW GRID(p,q) DRAW AXES DRAW AXES(p,q) DRAW GRID0 DRAW AXES0 DRAW circle DRAW disk
Graphics Commands
PLOT LABEL ,AT x,y: string-expression
Similar to PLOT TEXT, except no changing the text size nor text directions on transformation.
MOUSE POLL x,y,left,right
Gets real-time mouse status.
SET BEAM MODE "IMMORTAL"
The beam shall NOT be cut off even if any graphics input or output statement except PLOT LINES or GRAPH LINES be executed.
SET BEAM MODE "RIGOROUS"
The beam shall be cut off according to the ANSI or ISO standard.
SET TEXT FONT fontname$ ,size
Specifies the size in points
SET BITMAP SIZE width,height
Specifies width and height in pixels (valid only on the Bitmap graph mode)
FLOOD x,y
Compatible with True BASIC
PAINT x,y
Functionally equivalent to PAINT command of Microsoft BASIC.
SET COLOR MODE "NATIVE"
Color indices become equal to Windows Color numbers.
A color index can be obtained with function COLORINDEX(r,g,b).
SET COLOR MODE "REGULAR"
Return to the regular mode of this BASIC.
SET DRAW MODE HIDDEN
Graphics drawing shall be done implicitly.
SET DRAW MODE EXPLICIT
Return regular graphics mode.
SET DRAW MODE NOTXOR
SET DRAW MODE OVERWRITE
SET AREA STYLE "SOLID"
SET AREA STYLE "HOLLOW"
SET AREA STYLE "HATCH"
SET AREA STYLE INDEX hatch_sytle_index
hatch_style_index must be an integer in the range from 1 to 6.
Functions
PIXELX(x) problem coordinate to pixel coordinate
PIXELY(y)
PROBLEMX(x) pixel coordinate to problem coordinate
PROBLEMY(y)
COLORINDEX(r,g,b)
The Following Statement and functions are defined in the real-time module of Full BASIC,
while Decimal BASIC does not implement Real-Time module.
Statement
WAIT DELAY numeric-expression
numeric-expression indicates delaying time in seconds.
Functions
BVAL(string-expression,2)
BSTR$(numeric-expression,2)
BVAL(string-expression,16)
BSTR$(numeric-expression,16)