Section: User Commands (1)

Modifications by the unofficail patch are shown in red characters.


tree - list contents of directories in a tree-like format.


tree [ -adfgilnopqstuxACDFNS ] [ -L level [ -R ]] [ -H baseHREF ] [ -P pattern ] [ -I pattern ] [ directory ... ] [--charaset character-set-name]


Tree is a recursive directory listing program that produces a depth indented listing of files, which is colorized ala dircolors if the LS_COLORS environment variable is set and output is to tty. With no arguments, tree lists the files in the current directory. When directory arguments are given, tree lists all the files and/or directories found in the given directories each in turn. Upon completion of listing all files/directories found, tree returns the total number of files and/or directories listed.

By default, when a symbolic link is encountered, the path that the symbolic link refers to is printed after the name of the link in the format:

name ->real-path

If the `-l' option is given and the symbolic link refers to an actual directory, then tree will follow the path of the symbolic link as if it were a real directory.


Tree understands the following command line switches:


Outputs a verbose usage listing.


Outputs the version of tree.


All files are printed. By default tree does not print hidden files (those beginning with a dot `.'). In no event does tree print the file system constructs `.' (current directory) and `..' (previous directory).

--charaset character-set-name

Specifys character set name to print. If there are line draw characters in the specified character set, the indentation lines are printed with them. When running on OS/2 systems, the default value of this option is according to current codepage. On the other systems, no default.


List directories only.


Prints the full path prefix for each file.


Makes tree not print the indentation lines, useful when used in conjunction with the -f option.


Follows symbolic links if they point to directories, as if they were directories. Symbolic links that will result in recursion are avoided when detected.


Stay on the current file-system only. Ala find -xdev.

-P pattern

List only those files that match the wild-card pattern.

Note: you must use the -a option to also consider those files beginning with a dot `.' for matching. Valid wildcard operators are `*' (any zero or more characters), `?' (any single character), `[...]' (any single character listed between brackets (optional - (dash) for character range may be used: ex: [A-Z]), and `[^...]' (any single character not listed in brackets).

-I pattern

Do not list those files that match the wild-card pattern.


On Linux a system, print the protections for each file (as per ls -l). On an OS/2 system, print the attiributes for each file (as per dir /v).

-o filename

Send output to filename.


Print the size of each file along with the name.


Print the username, or UID # if no username is available, of the file.


Print the group name, or GID # if no group name is available, of the file.


Print the date of the last modification time for the file listed.


Append a `/' for directories, a `=' for socket files, a `*' for executable files and a `|' for FIFO's, as per ls -F


Print non-printable characters in filenames as question marks instead of the default carrot notation.


Print non-printable characters as is instead of the default carrot notation.


Sort the output by last modification time instead of alphabetically.


Turn colorization off always, over-ridden by the -C option.


Turn colorization on always, using built-in color defaults if the LS_COLORS environment variable is not set. Useful to colorize output to a pipe.


Turn on ANSI line graphics hack when printing the indentation lines.


Turn on ASCII line graphics (useful when using linux console mode fonts; Same as `--charset=IBM437').

-L level

Max display depth of the directory tree.


Recursively cross down the tree each level directories (see -L option), and at each of them execute tree again adding `-o 00Tree.html' as a new option.

-H baseHREF

Turn on HTML output, including HTTP references. Useful for ftp sites. baseHREF gives the base ftp location when using HTML output. That is, the local directory may be `/local/ftp/pub', but it must be referenced as `ftp://hostname.organization.domain/pub' (baseHREF should be `ftp://hostname.organization.domain/').

Hint: don't use colorization and/or ANSI lines with this option, and don't give more than one directory in the directory list.



System color database.

Users color database.


Color information created by dircolors


Steve Baker (
HTML output hacked by Francesc Rocher (
Unofficial patched by Kyosuke Tokoro (


None known. Not heavily tested. Could use a few more options, ala ls.


dircolors (1L), ls (1L), find (1L)


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